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Classics-History-Politics

Applicable for the 2020-2021 academic year.

Classics-History-Politics Website

Advisors; Professors CRAMER, FULLER, NEEL

The Classics–History–Politics major offers students interested in the Western intellectual tradition the opportunity for multidisciplinary study supported by training in languages central to that tradition. It culminates in a senior thesis requiring students each to address a major problem in the history of ideas in its historical context. The CHP major is highly flexible, allowing students to fulfill its requirements through varied options within the respective departments. Individuals’ programs, however, must be carefully chosen in consultation with CHP staff so that courses within the constituent disciplines form an integrated whole fully supportive of their eventual senior projects.

Major Requirements

All students opting for this major will complete an array of courses establishing their familiarity with the major political, social, and intellectual developments of the Mediterranean and Europe from antiquity to the contemporary world. Further, all will explore the Western tradition’s ways of interpreting its past by attention to both classical and subsequent models. Students’ historical and historiographical coursework will be distributed among the three constituent departments. Meanwhile, they will develop skills in at least one classical and one modern language to the point that they are able to use each in independent reading and research. Declared CHP majors in all undergraduate years will participate in an informal seminar meeting once a block, in which they establish intellectual community with their peers and advisers in discussion of significant texts outside their course material.

Finally, all CHP majors will complete substantial projects of research and criticism integrative of their experience throughout this program; their respective theses will be enriched by consideration of the primary sources in which they are based in the original languages, where possible.

Students may choose as primary advisers for their respective thesis projects any faculty members in a constituent department; other members of the college faculty may be invited to consult on or advise theses by student petition and approval of the CHP staff. One of the major’s core advisers, however, will always serve as first or second reader of thesis work, and advisory faculty will annually approve and, as appropriate, grant honors for all theses in classics–history–politics. 

REQUIREMENTS — Entry (2 units):

Students may enter the major after courses in Classics, Political Science, History, or the cognate disciplines of Art History, Philosophy, or Religion, as approved by the major advisors.

 

Ancient and modern language (to level of proficiency as individually determined by CHP faculty).

Normally, language proficiency will be understood to be the ability to read and respond to literary, historical, and philosophical works in either classical Greek or Latin (or, if appropriate to students’ interests, Hebrew or Arabic) and a modern European language.

History of ideas (6 units):

Students’ historical requirement will regularly be fulfilled by the completion of at least one unit in each of four periods (antiquity, Middle Ages and Renaissance, modernity, and the contemporary world), including at least two units of political science. Because suitable political science courses frequently address multiple historical periods, students will consult with their advisers about the appropriateness of particular syllabi to the respective period requirements, sometimes fulfilling two historical requirements with paired, parallel political theory courses. Although students may petition to substitute courses omitted below — for instance topics courses of special interest — for elements among the core CHP offerings, the following list will optimally support their development through the program:

  1. Antiquity: History 213/Classics 250 Greek Foundations/Athenian Democracy, Classics/History 216 Roman History I, Classics 226/History 227 Roman History II, Classics 222/Political Science 234 Freedom and Empire: The Drama of Ancient Politics.
  2. Middle Ages and Renaissance: History 274 Making Europe: Medieval Culture and the Framing of European Identity, History 275 Renaissance and Reformation: Crisis and Dissent, History 312 Crusade and Reform in Europe's Long 12th Century. 

III.  Modern Period: History 249 Women, Children and Men, History 255 Nature and Society, History 277 Europe in an Age of Absolutism, History 278 Europe in the Age of Revolution, History 287 Enlightenment Culture, History 288 Intellectual History of Modern Europe (2 blocks), Political Science 205 Foundations of Political Economy, Political Science 246 Politics in Literature, Political Science 292 American Political Thought, Political Science 270 Liberty and Equality, Political Science 371Political Thought from Kant to Nietzsche.

  1. Contemporary Period: History 289 The Age of Ideology, History 290 World War II and its Aftermath, Political Science 203/Studies in Film 205: Topics—Politics in Film, Political Science 242 Conservatism and Liberalism, Political Science 372 Political Thought Since Nietzsche.

The following courses are or may also be appropriate to the major, and may be used to fulfill requirements in one or more of the respective chronological categories, depending on a given year’s syllabus, by permission of the respective instructors and the CHP advisers: Classics 222 Topics, History 200 Topics and 209 Topics in Ancient History, History 410 Advanced Seminar, Political Science 298 What Is Political Philosophy?, Political Science 344 Realism and Idealism in Political Philosophy, Political Science 408 Tutorial in Political Theory, Political Science 419 Seminar in Political Philosophy.

Theory of History (2 units):

Students may fulfill the historiographical requirement by completing both Classics 221/History 302 (Invention of History) and any of the following history or political science courses treating the tradition of historical analysis: History 399 Studying History, or Political Science 303 The Uses of the Past, offered as an independent study or summer readings course by Professor Fuller or Neel.

Major Seminar:

The seminar meets regularly throughout the academic year. It may offer presentations by CHP faculty and students or their guests, as well as common readings and discussions. Although the seminar offers no credit, regular participation will be considered part of the major’s requirements.

Senior Thesis (2 units):

Declared majors must submit well-developed thesis proposals to the CHP advisory group by the end of the junior year. Their two-block thesis requirement must be completed by Block 7 of the senior year, and may be designated on their transcript by the appropriate course number in the adviser’s discipline: Classics 322 or 401, 402, 411, 412 and 431; History 430 and 431; or Political Science 402 and 450.

Courses

Classics

Introduction to the structure and vocabulary of classical Greek, with attention to those features that form the classical basis of Biblical koine and for the classical side of Greek diglossia from Hellenistic times through the 20th century. Short texts from Homer to Kazantzakis and Cavafy provide practice in literary, philosophical and rhetorical reading and initiation in major areas of Western thought. Attention to the history of the language and its relation to ancient, medieval and modern culture. Meets the Language Requirement requirement.

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A lower-level maintenance course for students who plan to continue their study of Greek. A systematic review of grammar with supervised readings and translation practice. Prerequisite: Classics 101 or equivalent. .25 unit.

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A lower-level maintenance course for students who plan to continue their study of Greek. A systematic review of grammar with supervised reading and translation practice. Prerequisite: Classics 101 or equivalent. .25 unit.

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Introduction to the structure of classical Latin; reading of short texts from Plautus to Milton and Newton to provide practice in literary and rhetorical reading and initiation in major areas of western thought. Attention to the history of the language and its relation to ancient, medieval and modern culture. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Language Requirement requirement.

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A lower-level maintenance course for students who plan to continue their study of Latin. A systematic review of grammar with supervised reading and translation practice. Prerequisite: Classics 111 or equivalent. .25 unit.

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A lower-level maintenance course for students who plan to continue their study of Latin. A systematic review of grammar with supervised reading and translation practice. Prerequisite: Classics 111 or equivalent. .25 unit.

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Introduction to Ancient Greek and Roman cultures through reading of original sources and an examination of material culture. Part One: literature from various genres (such as epic, dramatic, lyric and philosophical); modern ways of receiving and interpreting them. Part Two: art, architecture and topography of ancient Greece and Rome. This course will consider the long-standing influence these civilizations played in the development of later Western cultures, and will examine modern outcomes and parallels to the historical forms and movements, such as Athenian democracy as a precedent for American democracy, colonization in antiquity and European colonialism in the c. 16-19, and the Roman Empire as a precedent for the expansive American State of late c. 19 to the present. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Aegean and Greek archaeological, historical, literary and philosophical texts, with emphasis on ideas formative of Western culture. The development and transformations of these ideas as reflected in selected texts from the early Christian era, the Enlightenment, and the Modern Age. We concentrate on concepts of what it means to be human, and the relation of individuals to community, nature, and the divine in such authors as Homer, Sophocles, Aeschylus, Euripides, Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Dante, Descartes, Goethe, Nietzsche, and Heidegger (Also listed as History 116 and Philosophy 116.) (Not offered 2021-22).

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This interdisciplinary course explores enduring questions in the Western tradition: What does it mean to be free? What are the basic ideas of freedom that figure prominently in the Western tradition? What is freedom for? Is there a rational use of freedom? Discussion will spring from readings in ancient, medieval and modern philosophy, politics, religion and literature, and complementary films. (Not offered 2021-22).

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An exploration of Greek, Roman and Near Eastern myths in the ancient Mediterranean, emphasizing metamorphoses thematically across cultures, with attention to the (imagined) other in gender and society. Readings will include selections from Mesopotamian literature (Enuma Elish, The Epic of Gilgamesh, The Hymns to Inanna), Greece and Rome (Hesiod’s Theogony, the Homeric Hymns, the Greek dramatists and Aristophanes, Sappho, Sulpicia and Ovid’s Metamorphoses, among others), and accompanying art and archaeological evidence. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Intensive Latin Grammar Review and Reading Practice. This course will use a morphological and syntactic approach to review and practice the essential structures and concepts of Latin grammar. It is intended to prepare students for courses at the 200 level. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Survey of the civilizations that flourished in and around Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syria-Palestine, Greece and Italy from the time of the first cities (3000 BC) to the rise of Islam (seventh century AD). Beyond providing a historical overview, the course explores the surprising ways in which the various peoples of this area influenced one another culturally. We will also learn about the different types of evidence, both literary and archaeological, on which knowledge of the ancient world is based. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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An introduction to the theoretical concept of ethnicity and related issues as they played out in the ancient Mediterranean world. In particular, a focus on the way Greeks and Romans defined themselves and distinguished themselves from other peoples as a way of assigning meaning to the universe, and how those attitudes motivated their behavior towards outsiders. Also an examination of the practical effects of such discourses on the lives of people who lived in Greek and Roman communities without belonging to the dominant groups, and some of the ways in which modern approaches to race and ethnicity have structured and sometimes distorted our collective understanding of the past. The materials studied include literary, artistic, and archaeological evidence, as well as modern scholarship. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement.

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Latin Language course taken on Mediterranean Semester Program. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Introduction to Greek literature, including Homer and dramatic, philosophical or historical writing. Meets the Language Requirement requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Introduction to Greek literature, including Homer and dramatic, philosophical or historical writing. Meets the Language Requirement requirement.

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An upper-level maintenance course for students who plan to continue their study of Greek. A systematic review of grammar with reading and translation practice. Prerequisite: Classics 201 or equivalent. .25 unit.

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An upper-level maintenance course for students who plan to continue their study of Greek. A systematic review of grammar with reading and translation practice. Prerequisite: Classics 201 or equivalent. .25 unit.

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A study of imagery during Late Antiquity—200-750 CE--through art, architecture, archaeological sites and texts. The course covers the visual arts in imperial Rome and Sassanid Persia, the mystery religions of Mithras, Isis and Dionysus as well as Judaism, Christianity and early Islam. We will study how the power of images was harnessed to convey religious meaning and convert adherents; how the imagery of pagan antiquity influenced the eventual formation of a Christian visual language; how the first monuments of Islamic art drew on pre-existing traditions. Monuments to be studied include the Arch of Constantine, sanctuaries of Mithras and Isis, catacomb paintings, synagogues and their mosaic floors, the religious buildings of Dura Europos, Christian basilicas and their decoration, the Hagia Sophia and the Dome of the Rock. 1 unit Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Major writers and schools from the thousand year history of Greek philosophical research in the areas of nature, the gods, the mind, and ways of life: Ionian and Italian Pre-Socratics, Plato and the Academy, Aristotle, Pyrrho, the Cynics, the Stoa, Epicurus and Lucretius, and the revival in Late Antiquity of Pyrronian Scepticism and Platonism. Emphasis on close reading of the texts (including certain Greek terms) and on critical and comparative writing. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement.

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Various ancient and medieval Latin works. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Language Requirement requirement.

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Various ancient and medieval Latin works. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Language Requirement requirement.

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An upper-level maintenance course for students who plan to continue their study of Latin. A systematic review of grammar with reading and translation practice. Prerequisite: Classics 211 or equivalent. .25 unit.

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An upper-level maintenance course for students who plan to continue their study of Latin. A systematic review of grammar with reading and translation practice. Prerequisite: Classics 211 or equivalent. .25 unit.

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Focus on the development of Rome, from a small city ruled by kings, to a regional power ruled under a Republic. The course will trace Rome's expansion through Italy, its conflict with Carthage and will closely examine the end of the Republic. Individuals discussed will include the Gracchi, generals Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Caesar, and Rome's greatest politician (and author) Cicero. (Also listed as History 216.) Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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The Iliad and Odyssey as oral traditional poems, preservers of Bronze Age and archaic lore, locus of the creation of classical Greek culture and predecessors of European epic; together with Hesiodic epic and Homeric hymns. Reading in English with attention to the formal Greek diction and the problems of translation, except that students who know Greek will read parts of the original text. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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A study of origins, early texts, performance practices and developing theatrical conventions in various cultures, with special emphasis on ancient Greek and Roman theatre. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Religion and myth of ancient Greece and Rome in relation to that of the ancient Mediterranean (Akkadian, Hittite, Sumerian, Egyptian). Female presence in art, literature and religion compared to treatment of women in their respective cultures. Theoretical approaches to the understanding of myth (Comparative, Jungian, Structuralist) in relation to myths as they are encoded in their specific cultures. Students may trace a myth through Medieval, Renaissance and modern transformations in art, music, poetry and film, or study myth in other cultures (e.g. Norse and Celtic). May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement.

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Herodotus, sometimes called the 'father of lies,' and Thucydides, sometimes called the first political scientist, treated as the first historians. Study of the ways of conceiving history and its relation to the peoples and periods explored. No Greek or Latin required. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement.

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Courses vary from year to year, to include offerings in classical and comparative religion and mythology, history, language and literature, anthropology, archaeology and women's studies supplementary to those offered in the catalog. No Greek or Latin required.

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Surveys the art and architecture of Greece and Rome from their origins in Bronze Age Greece to their transformation in the late Roman Empire using methods of art history and archaeology. Ancient Greek cities and sanctuaries with emphasis on Athens and the monuments of the Acropolis. The spread of Hellenism and the formation of an imperial visual language under Alexander the Great and his successors. The influence of Etruscan and Greek art in the Roman Republic. Imperial monuments of the city of Rome and throughout the empire as instruments of power. The class will consider political and social factors in the formation and utilization of Classical forms in both ancient and modern times. (Also listed as AH 207). (Not offered 2021-22).

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Focus on the development of the Roman state in the late first century B.C. under the emperor Augustus. The city, its monuments, its art, its literature, bureaucracy and territorial expansion, the role of women, and various social and minority groups will all be discussed. In particular, the course will emphasize important and influential literary figures, such as Horace, Ovid, Propertius, Virgil and Augustus himself. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement.

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A survey of economic life in ancient Greece and Rome, which involved both primitive subsistence agriculture and a complex international marketplace of luxury goods—often tightly regulated by predatory states. Topics will include the essential but diverse role of slavery, why debt crises plagued rich and poor alike, the degree to which banking facilitated international trade, and how governments manipulated the silver content of coinage to cover budget shortfalls or finance armies. Also considered are the reasons behind the invention and spread of coinage as a medium of exchange. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Special projects related to Classics or the ancient world, requiring no knowledge of ancient languages, arranged by individual students and Classics Department faculty. May be offered in extended format or half-block format.

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Focus on how conservative Roman republican ideals were reconciled with an increasingly Hellenized empire dominated by an imperial dynasty. Following a brief survey of prior Roman history, the course will examine the development of the Roman state in the first century AD under the Julio-Claudian emperors. The course will proceed to consider the Empire’s evolution and management under subsequent Flavian and Antonine dynasties. The city, its monuments, its art, its literature, bureaucracy and territorial expansion, the role of women, various social and minority groups, and the growth of Christianity will all be discussed. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement.

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A survey of the development and expansion of Greek city states (known as “poleis”) from their emergence in the eighth century BC to Greece’s conquest by Philip II of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great. Particular attention will be paid to Athens and Sparta, the two great powers of this period. The class will examine Greece’s political institutions (How direct was direct democracy?), social relations (What were the lived realities of women, foreigners and slaves?) and intellectual history (especially the rise of rhetoric to better persuade mass audiences in a democracy). Readings will draw on ancient historians (Herodotus, Thucydides), political theorists (Plato, Aristotle), satirists (Aristophanes) and statesmen (Demosthenes, Lysias, Xenophon). (Not offered 2021-22).

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An examination of the life of Alexander the Great and the ancient Mediterranean world in which he lived. Also considered are the impact he had on the historical development of that world after his death, the political use of his legacy from antiquity to the 21st century, and the fascination he continues to inspire. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Since the beginning of time, humans have been searching into the nature of the soul, its life and its meanings. Starting from the Greeks, this course seeks to discover how the concept of “soul” is understood, and how its life is conceived. We will explore the roots of these questions in ancient Greek epic, drama and philosophy, how these answers transform in medieval and renaissance literature, and how modernity offers strikingly new answers to them. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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An introductory survey of issues relating to gender and sexuality in Greece and Rome. The focus will be on the role of women in ancient society and their characterization in literature. Though our sources are dominated by male perspectives, the class will attempt a balanced and accurate picture of ancient society. The course will also place these literary depictions in the broader context of art, political and societal structure, religious belief and family relations. Authors examined will include Hesiod, Homer, Aristophanes, Virgil, the female poets Sappho and Sulpicia, Ovid, and many more. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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The course considers the role sport and entertainment played in ancient society. We begin by examining athletics in the Greek world, specifically the Olympics and other major games. We will discuss the different types of events and then consider the evolving role athletics played in Greek education and society. We will then transition to the Roman world, examining gladiatorial games, chariot racing, the theatre, and the Olympics in the Roman period. We will trace the development of the status of athletes from amateurs to the professionalization of sport, and pause to consider the place of musicians and actors in Greek and Roman society. Throughout the course students will become familiar with the architecture of related venues and investigate the role of spectators. Students will continually be challenged to relate ancient athletics to the sports of today. Sources will include Homer, Pindar, Virgil, Ovid, Martial and various inscriptions. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Supervised readings or investigations in areas of interest to the students that are not covered in regular Classics Department offerings. Readings and/or investigations to be followed up with discussions and written reports. Must be approved by the Chair on behalf of the Department, in addition to the supervising professor.

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Further exploration of ancient, medieval or modern Greek literature, done as independent reading. Meets the Language Requirement requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Further exploration of ancient, medieval or modern Greek literature, done as independent reading. Meets the Language Requirement requirement.

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Further exploration of ancient or medieval Latin literature. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Language Requirement requirement.

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Further exploration of ancient or medieval Latin literature. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Language Requirement requirement.

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Study for advanced students in the languages, arts, drama and literature. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Independent study of various authors and special topics. Meets the Language Requirement requirement.

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Independent study of various authors and special topics. Meets the Language Requirement requirement.

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Independent study of various authors and special topics. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Language Requirement requirement.

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Independent study of various authors and special topics. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Language Requirement requirement.

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Thesis subjects chosen by student and approved by department. Senior Classics, Classics-History-Politics and Classics - English majors.

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History

An introductory survey of human culture and society through the comparison of Europe and one other major area of the world from ancient to the modern period, focusing on fundamental topics in the development of world civilizations, including material culture, political organization, and aesthetics. The course will emphasize critical moments in historical development, thematic connections, and primary textual and visual sources. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Writing in the Discipline requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Western civilization from ancient to modern times. Cultural, social, and political developments that shaped the modern world. The department offers this course in sections designated Europe or Atlantic World. Atlantic World includes the study of the heritage of Western civilization in the Western hemisphere. (Not offered 2021-22).

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As the German-Jewish philosopher Walter Benjamin noted, the march of progress is like a storm that leaves only ruins in its wake – ruined environments, ruined cultures, ruined bodies. Whereas some have sought refuge from these storms of progress in nostalgic attempt to retrieve – and, in some cases, return to – lost times, others have eschewed such romantic pursuits, seeking instead to forge alternative ways of being in the world, some modicum of a right life in the wrong one. After examining the destructive dynamics associated with capitalist modernity, this course will turn its attention to the oppositional milieus and defiant voices that have flourished in modernity’s ruins. Although the course makes occasional forays into global history, the primary focus will be on 19th- and 20th-century Europe. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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East Asian civilization from ancient to modern times. Cultural, social and political developments that shaped East Asian nations and their place in the modern world. Introduces basics of historical method: contextualization, analysis, and critical evaluation of primary sources and their significance. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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An introduction to history through the study of a special subject in depth. Emphasis on the ways in which historians find and interpret the materials of the past. For students who do not complete the West in Time requirement in the History Department, a gateway to the History major. Topics designated according to the specialties of the faculty.

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As a burgeoning turn-of-the-century metropolis, the capital of Imperial Germany, an early epicenter of queer culture in the 1920s, the administrative center of the Nazi genocide, a frontline city in the Cold War, a hotbed of leftist activism in the 1960s, and a symbolic capital of post-Cold War Europe, the city of Berlin has played an outsized role in twentieth-century history. Using a wide array of primary documents (ranging from experimental films and mass-market novels to political manifestos and architectural plans), this course explores the history of Berlin from the late nineteenth to the early twenty-first century. In so doing, it both familiarizes students with some of the central events of twentieth-century European history and serves as an example for how to employ the tools of cultural and urban history. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. Meets the Equity and Power: EPG requirement.

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Latin American history from pre-Columbian times to the present. Emphasis on colonial Mexico and Peru, the centers of Spanish power in the New World, and the political and social development of post-independence Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico. Introduces historiography and the basics of historical method: contextualization, analysis and critical evaluation of primary sources and their significance. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Aegean and Greek archeological, historical, literary, and philosophical texts, with emphasis on those ideas formative in shaping Western culture. The development and transformations of these ideas as reflected in selected texts from the early Christian era, the Enlightenment or the Modern Age. The rise of individualism and its conflicts with community, ritual relationships to nature vs. separation and exploitation, the relation of theology to the ordering of experience, and how psyche both forms and is formed by its relationships to community, nature, and god(s). (Not offered 2021-22).

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Two block course that introduces the full sweep of American History from its pre-contact, 'New World' beginnings to the recent past. Students will experience how history is made, understood, revised, and debated. Themes include cultural encounters and adaptation complexities of ethnicity and immigration; movement; the success and failures of republican ideology, capitalism, individualism and community; and the formation of American cultures. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Examines large-scale social structures and the question of 'ordinary' men and women from the seventh century C.E. to the present. Through a range of historical approaches-cultural, intellectual, political and social-and an emphasis on close reading of primary materials, students explore in what ways the histories of Islamic Civilization, Western Civilization, African Civilization, and Central Asian Civilization were connected histories and how people in the Middle East have critiqued their own societies and those of their contemporaries. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course examines art and cultural history in Europe from Antiquity through to the twentieth century. Taking an interdisciplinary perspective, one which seeks to bring art history and history in critical dialogue with one another, the students and professors will interrogate the meta-narrative of “progress” across time. In many ways, succeeding periods engaged in conversations with their pasts to make claims of domination through pictorial and cultural production. But it is important, too, to examine counter-narratives made by subaltern groups of the various eras, along the critical axes of gender, sexuality, class, ethnicity, race and other markers of identity. Students will be called upon to think systematically about “who” they themselves are in order to engage with the past and explore human similarities, as well as differences, across a long period of time. Thinking systematically about the notion of “critical bias” and the need to analyze the past in its own terms, as well as in ours, will open up avenues to thinking about the present in new ways. We will examine the most important eras of European history, in particular, Ancient Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the early modern period, and the more recent past. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Selected topics in the study of history. Specific content and emphasis to be determined by the instructor.

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Emerging in the 1920s as a radical, right-wing fringe group seeking to rejuvenate Germany following its catastrophic defeat in the First World War, Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Party would go on to become one of the most destructive forces of the Twentieth Century. After first examining the Nazi rise to power in the wake of the Great Depression and the subsequent brutality of its reign, the course will delve into the manifold, and often contradictory, efforts to reconstitute European society after the war. In so doing, it will pay particularly close attention to the multiple 'afterlives' of fascism including the resurgence of neo-Nazi political movements, the subcultural appropriation of fascist imagery, and the multifaceted attempts to memorialize and to “come to terms with” the manifold traumas of the Nazi years. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement.

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Born amidst the crucible of the First World War, the Soviet Union sought to realize a progressive, socialist vision, a utopia on earth in which all people would be equal, nature would be conquered, and society would be freed from the destructive dynamics of capitalism. From the outset, however, the implementation of these utopian blueprints was coupled with astonishing acts of violence – the dreamworlds of socialism were constantly shadowed by their opposite. Taking seriously both the utopian and the dystopian aspects of the soviet experiment, this course traces the violent emergence, the piecemeal realization, and the protracted decline of the Soviet Union. Relying heavily on literature, art, and film from the era, the course takes an explicitly cultural historical approach to soviet history. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement.

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Broad approach to the history of American traditions and institutions from Anglo-American settlement to the outbreak of the Civil War, addressing Native American-Anglo American encounters; colonization and development of Anglo-American culture and society; African Slave Trade and the Plantation Economy; American Revolution; Jeffersonian Ideology and Westward Expansion; Jacksonian Democracy and the Industrial Revolution; the Politics of Slavery and Secession. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement.

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Broad approach to the history of the United States since the Civil War, focusing on multiple meanings of American freedom and the rise of the modern United States as a global power, including attention to Emancipation and Reconstruction; Industrialization, Migration, and Immigration; Civil Rights Movements and Protest Politics; the Great Depression, New Deal and WWII; American Foreign Policy and the Cold War; the Great Society, Vietnam, and the Challenge to the New Deal Order. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: SHB requirement. Meets the Equity and Power: EPUS requirement.

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Detailed study of a period (such as the end of the Roman Republic or Periclean Athens) or a theme (such as slavery or the rise and fall of the middle class) in Greek and/or Roman history.

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Introduces students to the history of native peoples primarily in North America. The course includes histories of individual native groups as well as the relationship between American Indians and a variety of Europeans from before contact until the present. Examines a variety of primary and secondary materials to see patterns in the ways that Native Americans have been affected by the process of conquest, the ways in which Anglo-Europeans have responded to Native Americans, and in the ways in which American Indians have become a part of and remained apart from 'mainstream' American culture. As a broader goal, we also look at the way 'history' is made, understood, and used by very different cultural traditions. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course explores the ways the state, church, and the people dealt with crime and viewed justice in Renaissance, early modern, and modern Europe. Attention to topics such as heresy, the witch craze, and treason and to what ordinary and great trials reveal about changing attitudes toward criminal justice. (Not offered 2021-22).

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A survey of American history from the perspective of the environment, beginning with the biological and cultural invasion of the New World in 1492 and ending with current environmental problems and their historical roots. Topics include Native American vs. Euro-American views of nature, the impact of changing economic systems on the environment, and the impact of the landscape on various American cultures. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement.

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Athenian Democracy. The Greeks with Near Eastern and Indo-European background. Panhellenic epic and religion, the polis, philosophy, history, tragedy and comedy. Attention throughout to Greek and Latin literary forms, but no knowledge of ancient languages required. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Focus on the development of Rome, from a small city ruled by kings, to a regional power ruled under a Republic. The course will trace Rome's expansion through Italy, its conflict with Carthage and will closely examine the end of the Republic. Individuals discussed will include the Gracchi, generals Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Caesar, and Rome's greatest politician (and author) Cicero. (Also listed as Classics 216.) (Not offered 2021-22).

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The process of conquering the American continent from 1492 to the present. An examination of the variety of forms that Euro-American conquest took (exploration, religion, economic development, settlement, and military encounter), the impact of conquest on native peoples, the social and economic development of the frontiers, and the lives that people led and lead in places considered frontiers. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. Meets the Equity and Power: EPUS requirement.

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This two-block course will survey the history of the Eurasian region from Eastern Europe to the Central Asian and Pacific areas of Eurasia, with an important theme being the rise and fall of the Russian Empire, and the rise and fall of the Soviet bloc. The focus throughout will be on the ways in which religious, cultural, and ethnic identities were shaped by, accommodated to, and resisted the construction of national boundaries and identities. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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The Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and the Soviet successor states in the 20th century. Topics including the collapse of the Empire during the First World War, the attempted ‘building of socialism’ in the Soviet period, the crisis of the Soviet system, and how Soviet conceptions of the relation between ethnicity and nationality shaped political and cultural identities before and after 1991. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Focus on the development of the Roman state in the late first century B.C. under the emperor Augustus. The city, its monuments, its art, its literature, bureaucracy and territorial expansion, the role of women, and various social and minority groups will all be discussed. In particular, the course will emphasize important and influential literary figures, such as Horace, Ovid, Propertius, Virgil and Augustus himself.

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Traditional African states, Portugal and Africa, the slave trade, European conquest, occupation and administration. The African response to the European presence in terms of social change, the origins of a 'Europeanized' African elite and the beginnings of modern African politics. - Blasenheim,. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Africa and the Berlin Conference, primary and secondary resistance to European colonialism, political independence, conflicts between traditional and modern cultural patterns and ideologies, one-party rule and economic dependence. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Examines the origins of Chinese civilization, from the divination rituals of the theocratic Bronze Age Shang Dynasty to the mighty Han. Considers the great religious and philosophical traditions of China's axial age: Confucianism, Daoism, and others vying for influence in China's bloody 'Warring States' period. Students will understand the political, economic, cultural and spiritual patterns that gave shape to classical Chinese civilization. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Mass culture, according to its many critics, consists of shallow forms of entertainment that commodify and erase “authentic” modes of cultural expression. Whether members of the avant-garde or the counterculture, whether on the right or on the left, critics of mass culture have ignored its creative, world-making capacities, seeking instead to build authentic, unmediated lives outside of the pop sensibilities of their times. Analyzing a variety of pop cultural artifacts alongside the political, artistic, and academic critiques of mass culture produced by both the left and the right, this course explores mass culture and its multifaceted discontents over the course of the long twentieth century. While focused mainly on twentieth-century Europe, the course will make occasional forays into global history. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course will follow the turbulent history and politics of China from the Boxer Rebellion of 1900 through the post-Mao reforms. Using primary documents, personal accounts, and scholarly studies, students will assess China's political and cultural changes and continuities in historical context. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. Meets the Equity and Power: EPG requirement.

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This course will trace the social, political, and cultural developments in Japan from the first Parliamentary elections in 1890 to the current fiscal crisis in the 1990s. Using a wide range of sources, students will explore major themes in Japan's empire, World War, economic miracle, and troubled role as Asian leader. Major themes will include cross-cultural contact, world systems, and women's history. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement.

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Focus on how conservative Roman republican ideals were reconciled with an increasingly Hellenized empire dominated by an imperial dynasty. Following a brief survey of prior Roman history, the course will examine the development of the Roman state in the first century AD under the Julio-Claudian emperors. The course will proceed to consider the Empire’s evolution and management under subsequent Flavian and Antonine dynasties. The city, its monuments, its art, its literature, bureaucracy and territorial expansion, the role of women, various social and minority groups, and the growth of Christianity will all be discussed.

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The English colonies in America, their founding and development within the British Empire. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement.

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The movement for independence and the corollary movement to restructure politics internally, from the end of the Seven Years’ War through the Revolution and Confederation to the adoption of the U. S. Constitution. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Initial development of the United States under the Constitution through the Virginia dynasty and Jacksonian democracy. Party formation; conflicts in political economy; diplomacy; expansion; social and cultural growth. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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The causes, strategies, and impact of the Civil War on the United Sates. Slavery, sectional controversy, political crises; civilian and military life during the war; the successes and failures of Reconstruction; the problems of race. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. Meets the Equity and Power: EPUS requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Cultural expression, and race relations in the aftermath of WWI; changing sexual and racial relations and the anti-modernist response in the 1920s; the Harlem Renaissance; the causes and consequences of the Great Depression and FDR and the New Deal; the coming of WWII. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Domestic politics and political realignments from Truman to Nixon; McCarthyism and the beginnings of the Cold War; covert action and direct intervention in U.S. foreign policy; Civil Rights; Black Power; feminism; and controversies regarding the American family. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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American foreign policy from the 'Vietnam Syndrome' to the end of the Cold War to the invasion of Iraq; Americans and the Islamic world; transformations of the Republican and Democratic Parties and the Office of the President; negotiating race in the post-Civil Rights era; the 'New World Order' and the new immigration; religion, families, and gender and their roles in partisan politics. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: SHB requirement. Meets the Equity and Power: EPUS requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Political independence in the 1810s in La Plata and Chile. The impact of immigration, urbanization, modernization, populism, nationalism, militarism and redemocratization. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Portuguese colonization, political independence in a neo-colonial economy, the Brazilian Empire, the Republic. The emergence of modern Brazil: populism, corporation and militarism. The institution of slavery and its legacy. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Spanish conquest and administration in New Spain and Peru, the Catholic Church, internal and external colonial economies, the Bourbon reforms and political independence in the 1820s; class, caste and gender during the colonial period. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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The Aztec and other Indian peoples’ influence in Mexican history and thought; Spanish colonial legacy; Enlightenment, Liberal, and Conservative political philosophies; Mexico’s relationship to the United States; roles of the Church and of violence from European encounter through Revolution (1910-1921) and into Mexico’s current precarious social and political situation. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Emphasizes the intellectual precursors and historical development of the federal union of 1787 and of early American foreign policy. Considers America before the Civil War as a system of states and explores through debates over the American union and early foreign policy a range of theoretical issues in international relations. (Not offered 2021-22).

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African cultural backgrounds, African slavery in colonial British America and the U. S. to 1860; free Black people from 1790 to 1860 and antislavery movements. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement.

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S. since the Civil War. Black Reconstruction; Black urban settlement; literary and artistic movements in the 1920s; civil rights struggles; recent social and political expressions. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement.

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A thematic survey of Korean history from the earliest times to the present covering social, cultural and political developments from the Three Kingdoms period through the Silla unification, Koryo and Choson dynasties to the modern era. Special emphasis on the twentieth century. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course treats gender roles and family life throughout the European past, with comparative attention to families of other historical cultures and to relationships within non-human primate communities. It emphasizes the historical agency of women and children generally elided from traditional master narratives of Western Civilization, demonstrating how feminist and ethnohistorical approaches can reveal their experience. Course materials will include historiographical and anthropological literature as well as primary documents, literary works and visual sources. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement.

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How have science and religion come to be seen as such different enterprises? What role has the charge of 'magic' played in setting boundaries between communities as they sought to understand both the workings of the natural world and spiritual revelation? This course examines the intertwined histories of what we now call magic, science, and religion, through Babylonian, Hebrew, Greek, Arabic, and Latin sources, from the ancient through the early modern periods. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This is an introductory level course that explores the historical processes that have formed South Asia. Topics include British colonialism; nationalism and anti-colonialism; social and religious reform movements; independence and Partition; and the economic, political, and social issues facing the postcolonial nation-states of South Asia. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. Meets the Equity and Power: EPG requirement.

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This course explores changes in gender and sexual relations across social communities and through time in South Asia. Key topics covered in this course include the impact of colonialism, nationalism, and socio-religious reform movements; law and the postcolonial state; the cultural politics of sexuality; masculinities; and local and transnational feminisms. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. Meets the Equity and Power: EPG requirement.

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The course examines the interaction between Europeans and the natural world from the Renaissance to the present. It looks at how nature shaped the ways Europeans lived and worked and how, in turn, they thought about and behaved toward nature. In particular, it explores the impact of the Scientific Revolution, industrialization, and mass culture on the changing interplay between nature, society, and culture. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Educational institutions and their relationship to society from the Renaissance to the present. The rise of mass education and its impact on the structure and purpose of the educational system. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Development of an Islamic world through formation of key institutions of Islamic urban life, the changing relationships of tribal and agrarian societies to urban society, and the differentiation of public and private space. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Analysis of the variety of lived experiences and questions of freedom and authority in everyday life in the Middle East. Attention to the impact of modernity on gender roles and social order in the Middle East. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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The pre-contact history of Anasazi and Athabascan peoples from anthropological and mythological perspectives; the causes and consequences of the Spanish entrada and attempts at missionization of the Indian peoples of New Mexico and the California coast; development of mestizo society; the arrival of the Anglo-Americans and the Mexican-American War. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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The adaptation of Native American and Hispanic peoples to Anglo-American culture and politics; the causes and consequences of the loss of Hispanic lands; the evolution of family life and religious practices; indigenous views of modernity. Films, artistic expression, and works of fiction as well as historical sources. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Explores key themes in Southern history from colonial settlement through the American Civil War. Examines the distinctiveness of the American South, and how Southern life was shaped by slavery, particularly in the ways the plantation economy informed Southern political culture, gender and race relations. Other important issues include: Anglo-American encounters with Native Americans, the Great Awakening, the American Revolution, Jeffersonian republicanism, the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, and the rise of Southern nationalism. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course provides an overview of the history of human rights. We examine different genealogies of human rights, chart the shifting meanings of “human” and “rights” over time, and explore debates in the application of rights. Key topics include the philosophical foundations of rights; capitalism, imperialism, and rights; universalism vs. cultural relativism; and the complementary discourse of humanitarianism. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Exploration of Europeans’ expressions of identity and community from the close of Mediterranean antiquity to the Black Death of the fourteenth century. Consideration of literary texts, social organization, and ritual practices, with emphasis on Christian Europe as continually self-defining against its pagan and Muslim frontiers. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement.

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Scientific, religious and artistic achievements of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement.

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The birth of the modern state and the creation of modern society. From the end of the sixteenth-century Reformation and the religious wars through the crisis of the seventeenth century, as well as the making of the constitutional order in England and the absolutist state in France. Political, social, and cultural perspectives. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Causes and the social and political effects of the French Revolution, the Revolutions of 1848, and the Industrial Revolution. Particular attention to the process of revolutionary change and to political movements including liberalism, Marxism, and nationalism. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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The course analyzes the origins of 'modernity' in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Beginning with the Scientific Revolution, it then looks at the social and political environment that made the 'Republic of Letters' possible. A wide variety of primary-source texts, including social and political criticism, novels and poetry, painting and sculpture, will be examined. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Changes in European thought from the early modern to the modern periods examined through the works of representative writers, philosophers, political theorists, scientists and artists (including Locke, Galileo, Hegel, Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud, Sartre, Foucault, and others). The relationships between these changes and social developments. (Not offered 2021-22).

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The “revolt against reason.” The effects of World War I and the Great Depression on society and politics. Analysis of the appeal of Bolshevism and Fascism. Particular attention to Mussolini and Hitler’s successful challenge to liberal governments and to the Spanish Civil War. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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World War II and Its Aftermath in Europe, 1939-2000. The outbreak, course, and the effects of the War, including the advent of Communism in eastern Europe, European integration, and the 'economic miracle' in western Europe. The emergence of consumer society, the spread of popular culture, and the development of mass education. Attention to the challenges of decolonization and immigration Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Herodotus, sometimes called the 'father of lies,' and Thucydides, sometimes called the first political scientist, treated as the first historians. Study of the ways of conceiving history and its relation to the peoples and periods explored. No Greek or Latin required. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement.

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Critical issues in the philosophy of history and historical methodology as seen from the standpoint of the historian and the philosopher. (Offered by individual arrangement.) (Not offered 2021-22).

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Selected topics in the history of one or more world regions. Thematic concentration determined by the instructor.

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Analysis of sexual roles and sexual practices in the world before the concept of ‘sexual identity’ emerged in the late nineteenth century. Examination of how different religious traditions such as Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Christianity, and Buddhism have viewed sex, and exploration of a wide variety of topics including pornography, prostitution, and same-sex sexual behavior throughout the pre-modern world. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement.

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After examination of the birth of ‘sexuality’ in late nineteenth-century Europe, exploration of the acceptance of and resistance to this new conceptual model throughout the world. Attention to heterosexuality and homosexuality, intersexuality, and ‘perversion,’ concluding with analysis of the contemporary cultural wars over sexuality in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: HP requirement.

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Social, intellectual, and spiritual ferment between the Investiture Contest of the 1170s and the death of Francis of Assisi in 1226, with special attention to ideology of expansionism in the eastern Mediterranean and diversity of belief within Latin Christendom. Readings in primary sources for military action in the Middle East, pogroms in the Rhineland, saints’ lives, and persecution of heretical groups, as well as major recent works of historical criticism. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Examines the representation of history in film. It compares a series of films to major themes and issues in the historiographical literature and raises questions about the ways films should adhere to the academic standards of the historical discipline. Students will read significant debates among cinematic and academic historians and explore the possibilities and limitations of cinematic presentations of history. (Not offered 2021-22).

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An examination of the relationships, both similarities and differences, of history and literature. Using selected theoretical texts from Aristotle to the present, traditional narrative historical texts, experimental histories, fictions based on imagined thoughts and actions of historical figures, and comparisons of historical/biographical texts and historical novels, the course explores the different and/or similar purposes and functions of historical writing and literary writing, and the truth claims of each as forms of narrative and knowledge. In addition, we will read history literally and literature historically in order to interrogate the uses and limitations of both forms of writing. (Not offered 2021-22).

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We live in a haunted landscape, an environment that, to quote Vladimir Nabokov, is filled with objects and places “through which the past shines.” Although some of these vectors of the past – monuments, for example, or even museums – can serve to strengthen structures of domination in the present, this is not always true. Indeed, old houses, city streets, and discarded objects can retain traces of their original contexts; haunted palimpsests of layered time that, according to some theorists at least, can open the way to different futures. Analyzing a diverse array of texts from a range of disciplines this course explores how our visions of the past (and our conceptions of the future) are, to a large extent, mediated by the built environment. As a 300-level course, the class will culminate in a 15-page research paper.

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A junior seminar organized around comparative analysis of a common theme or topic, employing both historical and political science approaches to analysis and research. Designed principally for History/Political Science majors, but others may be admitted with consent of instructors.

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An examination of the effect of total war, extremism, and economic crisis on politics and society, with special attention to fascism, the resistance, post World War II revival, and to cultural movements such as the avant-garde, futurism, and existentialism. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This 300-level, co-taught course brings together historical and philosophical methodologies to explore a rotating theme, such as: “African History and Philosophy,” “History and Philosophy of Science,” or “The Philosophy of History.” Although conceived as a cornerstone course for the History-Philosophy Major, all are welcome. Students may take the course more than once, if taught on a different topic. With approval from the student’s advisors, it may be used to satisfy the 300-level History-Philosophy course requirements listed under “Thematic Coursework.”

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Chinese ways of life and thought and the interaction of local social patterns with government and elite ideals. Focuses on the last great dynasty, the Qing. With Emphasis on Writing. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Formation of the new nation that Hitler said in 1933 the world would not recognize. Germany’s catalysis of European and world transformations, as well as its institution of dictatorship and genocide at home. Political, economic, social/cultural, intellectual, and military aspects of German experience. (Not offered 2021-22).

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An examination of traditional and new methods of studying the past and an exploration of the debate over the nature and the meaning of history. Designed primarily for history majors, but others may be admitted with the consent of the department. Meets the Writing in the Discipline requirement.

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Students learn how to develop a research topic, advanced library and primary document research, and historical research design and organization. Students meet regularly to discuss their work in progress. Usually, a central text is also discussed throughout the semester. (Semester-long extended format course.) (Not offered 2021-22).

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Students learn how to develop a research topic, advanced library and primary document research, and historical research design and organization. Students meet regularly to discuss their work in progress. Usually, a central text is also discussed throughout the semester. (Semester-long extended format course.) (Not offered 2021-22).

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An advanced seminar on selected topics and themes in historical study.

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Independent, primary source research. Particular content and emphasis of the paper to be determined in consultation with supervising professor. To be taken in the block immediately following HY 410.

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An interdisciplinary, primary source-based thesis on a subject of interest to the student. Independent study format with regular consultation between the student and the faculty supervisors.

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An interdisciplinary, primary-source based thesis on a subject of interest to the student and approved by two faculty supervisors, one in Philosophy and one in History. Independent study format with regular consultation between the student and the faculty supervisors.

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An interdisciplinary, primary-source based thesis on a subject of interest to the student and approved by two faculty supervisors, one in Philosophy and one in History. Independent study format with regular consultation between the student and the faculty supervisors.

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Directed reading and preparation of a thesis.

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Political Science

Questions explored include the balance between state authority and individual liberty; analogies between the exercise of power in government and other areas of human life; the nature of ethical judgment in governance; and the varying ways in which constitutional regimes give expression to and tame the exercise of power. (Formerly 201 Political Analysis.) (Cannot be taken after 103.) (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course examines the gripping drama of ancient Roman politics, from the struggle for freedom to the temptations of empire, as it is notoriously described by Machiavelli in “The Prince,” and vividly portrayed in Shakespeare’s Roman plays. (Summer only 2021-22).

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The structure and process of United States national politics and government. Special attention to the ideas and values, institutions, and political processes that shape contemporary public policies in this country. 1 unit.

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The structure and process of United States national politics and government. Special attention to the ideas and values, institutions, and political processes that shape contemporary public policies in this country. 1 unit.

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Examines enduring themes of Political Economy with a focus on the balance between individual liberty, state authority, regulation of economic activity and the relation of the polity to economy.

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Introduction to the theory and practice of the contemporary state system. Emphasis on the last hundred years of inter-state rivalry.

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Analysis of significant and controversial Supreme Court decisions on issues such as racism and the legacy of slavery, school desegregation, affirmative action, gender discrimination, sexual harassment, the right to an abortion, criminal law, freedom of speech, and the separation of church and state. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Examines the relationship between women, government, and public policy -- with the primary goal of understanding how politics is gendered. Topics include the 'waves' of feminism, how female lawmakers navigate the electoral and legislative arenas, and the role of gender in public policy.

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Introduction to models and theories of leadership. Analysis of skills, styles and abilities that are frequently associated with effective leadership in political and organizational settings. Analysis of the paradoxes of leadership and the tensions among leadership, democracy, and creativity. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Famously condemned by democratic Athens as an impious and immoral corrupter of the young, Socrates has subsequently become a kind of hero of intellectual freedom. Yet Socrates’s radical pursuit of self-knowledge, his claim that 'the unexamined life is not worth living for a human being” has also continuously provoked profound philosophical debates. What does it mean to live an “examined life”? Why is self- knowledge the most important kind of knowledge? Does progress in Socratic self-knowledge help to strengthen – can it even comport with – our heartfelt commitments to moral, religious, and political progress? In this course, we begin to explore Socrates’ enigmatic life and teachings through accounts given of him by Plato and Xenophon, as well as through the many different and thoughtful judgments made of him through the ages - from Aristophanes and Aristotle to Rousseau, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, and beyond. .5 or 1 unit. (Not offered 2021-22).

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The course investigates the origins and development of theories justifying, and also seeking to limit, resort to war and conduct in war. The readings include ancient and modern formulations of what came to be known as the principles of justifying war, which have also gained recognition in international law. This includes consideration of the changing historical circumstances in which the principles are to be interpreted and applied to the use of force especially in relation to the issues of our time such as nuclear weapons and terrorism. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Ideas and Institutions which condition the formulation and execution of the nation's foreign policy.

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Examines the following questions: Are there politically relevant differences between the sexes, and if so, are they the product of nature and/or convention? What is/ought to be the relation between the political community and private attachments? How has liberalism answered these questions? How does consideration of gender challenge liberal theories such as contract, individual rights, and human nature? Readings in both political theory and in feminist literature. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement.

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An investigation into the strengths and limitations of nonviolent conflict in bringing social and political change. After a week investigating social movement theory drawing from several disciplines, students participate in a workshop in which they envision, organize and strategically guide a virtual nonviolent social movement. Class requires substantial engagement in class and group projects and a final exam.

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Student internships in primary and general elections. Post-campaign written analysis required. (Offered as an independent study.)

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Directed internships in national, state and local government agencies. Written analysis of the work experience required. (Offered as an independent study.)

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Examines ancient politics, from the struggle for freedom to the temptations of empire, insofar as it is vividly portrayed in Shakespeare and the classical literature of Greece and Rome: the greatness, challenges and defects of the ancient republic; the nature of political and military ambition; and the causes and character of empire. Focus/possible works: Shakespeare's Roman plays; the Socratic Xenophon's novel on the rise and rule of Cyrus the Great; Tacitus on Roman emperors. The course may also draw upon Machiavelli on Rome. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course will explore Shakespeare’s dramas as political philosophy. In his plays, Shakespeare often immerses the audience in richly detailed political situations that give rise to profound political and moral dilemmas which human beings continue to confront to this day. The class will pursue the moral and political education that thoughtful and prudent political men and women had for generations found in so many of Shakespeare’s dramas. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course introduces the concepts, definitions, theories and scholarly approaches used to study comparative politics with reference to selected case studies in different regions of the world. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement.

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Investigates the arts’ relation to narratives of power--those stories that justify why certain structures dominate, and why alternatives do not. An examination into those arts that expose these narratives, reveal silenced alternatives, and present challenger stories that aspire to power themselves. Includes two weeks of study in Serbia and Bosnia. Course fee/Passport and Visa, where needed. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: CP requirement. Meets the Equity and Power: EPG requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Examination of leading conservative and liberal thinkers in America since 1945.

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Reading and discussion of classic and contemporary works of fiction and drama known both for their literary merit and for their insight into politics. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Drawing on politics, economics, sociology and anthropology, this course critically examines the First World's relations with the Third World through the lens of 'development.' (Not offered 2021-22).

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The superiority of liberal democracy to other forms of government rested, in the thought of the early modern philosophers who sought to establish it, upon more fundamental claims about the truth of human equality, the right to individual liberty and, more surprisingly, on the primacy in human life of the need for power. Through careful study of the writings of Hobbes, Rousseau, and Tocqueville, we will explore the philosophical and political questions surrounding these claims, questions such as: What is the philosophical case for human “equality,” and what is its relation to justice? What do we mean by “power,” why do human beings pursue it, and how does that pursuit relate to our concerns for equality and justice? For freedom? Are equality and freedom in harmony, or in tension with one another? 1 unit (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course examines the relationship between urban development and environmental justice in the United States, with a particular emphasis on the role of urban planning practices in creating and maintaining the disproportionate exposure to pollution and the unequal access to environmental amenities faced by communities of color. It also investigates the political processes through which municipal sustainability efforts are being used by activists and city officials to create solutions to environmental and social injustices in urban areas. Meets the Equity and Power: EPUS requirement.

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Considers environmental politics and policy in the United States from the early twentieth century through the present. Examines environmental policies at the federal level, their effectiveness and limitations in protecting the environment, and the major policy debates that have surrounded them. Investigates the role of other key actors in shaping environmental governance, including environmental organizations, industry, and state and local governments (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course explores how Syria's peaceful 2011 uprising transformed into a bloody international war. Key themes include authoritarianism, mass mobilization, sectarianism, militarization, proxy conflicts, and the power of political ideology. Note: the materials for this course include a significant amount of graphic imagery.

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Independent Study, readings on special topics for non-majors or students with little or no previous political science coursework.

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Investigates the foundation and aims of politic rule as well as fundamental debates over the meaning of justice, liberty, power, authority, law and rights through an examination of basic but competing perspectives drawn from ancient, medieval, and modern texts. Thinkers include, but are not limited to, Aristotle, Aquinas, Machiavelli, and Locke. (Also offered as a CC120 course.)

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An examination of the political theory of the American founding and its relevance to contemporary political problems.

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A comparative study of the political systems and political cultures of selected European countries with consideration of the history and prospects of European Union. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Examination of modern philosophies of history since Hegel. Taught as an independent study, extended format or Summer Readings course in accordance with student schedules by arrangement with the instructor. Also fulfills a requirement in the Classics-History-Political Science major. COI.

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An overview of the interdisciplinary field of political psychology. Questions include: 1)Why do people engage in 'evil' behavior; 2)Why is there intergroup conflict; 3)How does the media alter political attitudes; and 4)Why do people make 'irrational political decisions? To answer these questions we will engage the situationist - dispositionist debate which shapes political behavior more, the situations in which individuals find themselves, or the psychological dispositions of those individuals?

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'Someone once said it is easier to imagine rhe end of the world than to imagine the end of capitalism.' (Fredric Jameson) This class examines Marx's diagnosis of capitalist political economy and imagines the end of capitalism from a Marxist perspective. We will also engage Marxist, post-Marxist, and neo-communist thinkers, such as Lenin, Gramsci, Althusser, David Harvey, Slavoj, Zizek, Jodi Dean, and others. (Not offered 2021-22).

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A comparative examination of the introduction of democracy and markets in Latin America, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Asia, featuring an analysis of how the contemporary package of neo-liberal policies known as 'the Washington consensus' interacts with political institutions. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement. Meets the Equity and Power: EPG requirement.

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Rotating, advanced courses in political science, with topic and subfield varying by instructor. (Not offered 2021-22).

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The roots, rise, maturity, and collapse of Soviet Leninism. Addresses implications of the Soviet legacy and contemporary conditions of the post-Soviet political order in Russia and other successor states of the Soviet Union. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Examines the development of international thought from the Renaissance to the Scottish, French, and American Enlightenments. How the modern thinkers saw antiquity, and how their thought is relevant to contemporary trends and debates, are key themes.

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How does the Chinese government see the world? How does China's domestic political concerns shape their actions on the global stage? How does the U.S. government see China? In what ways, do China and the U.S. misunderstand each other? This class examines key policy issues in Chinese foreign policy, and debates over the meaning of contemporary events, as artifacts of different world-views and understandings of power. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Focuses on Yugoslavia's disintegration in the 1990's and the subsequent international response. Evaluates theories developed in the fields of international relations and comparative politics that purport to explain events. Places specific focus on the interaction of identity and political institutions. May meet either the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures or Social Inequality requirement.

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Traces major themes and developments in MENA politics through the 20th and 21st centuries, with an emphasis on better understanding contemporary events. This course takes seriously the complexity of Middle East politics, engaging with both social scientific theory and lived experience. Topics explored include authoritarianism, state capacity, ethnic and sectarian politics, ideology, and nationalism, approached through case studies, art, fiction, and film. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement.

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The re-emergence of the Middle East as a regional subsystem in the 20th Century. The role of foreign powers, the rise and decline of Arabism, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, wars in the Gulf, and the impact of the Islamist movements since 1967. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course considers current elections, with a focus on presidential and congressional races. We will pay particular attention to voting behavior, political parties, and elite messaging. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Examines the main characters, events, and ideas of the era of revolution and constitution building. Focuses on the debates over the Federal Constitution and the diplomacy of the early republic. Considers changing views of the Constitution’s significance over time. Also listed as History 240. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Examines and evaluates the institution, the politics and policy impact of the American presidency with special emphasis on theories, models and strategies of presidential leadership. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course uncovers the paradox of ideology in the United States: while Americans, on average, prefer to call themselves 'conservatives,' they hold mostly liberal policy preferences on cultural and economic matters. By evaluating ideology at both the macro and micro level, this course considers the myriad of forces that shape ideological identification. 1 unit

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Structure and operation of the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. Emphasis on political organization, the committee system, lobby groups, roll-call analysis, and congressional relations with the executive and the bureaucracy. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Forces shaping public policies and decisions; internal politics of the national bureaucracy, the Presidency and Congress. Applies theories of policymaking to such cases as the environment, race and military affairs.

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This course examines the function of the courts in the United States as legal and governmental institutions, focusing primarily but not exclusively on the federal judiciary. It begins with the historical development of the trial courts and the adversarial system, and then considers the organization and function of the federal circuit courts and the Supreme Court of the United States. It concludes with an examination of legal reasoning, including the significance of legal sources, the doctrine of precedent, analogical reasoning, and the method and purpose of judicial decision-making. Some of the questions addressed during the course include: Are trials a search for truth? Should courts be concerned primarily with resolving legal disputes or creating legal rules? Are federal judges insulated from political motivations and influences? Is the Supreme Court a legal institution or a political institution?Why do judges follow precedent? What is the relationship between judges and justice? Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement.

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Examines the role of subnational governments such as states, cities, and provinces in climate change politics, with a particular focus on the role of cities in mitigating and adapting to a changing climate. Investigates how local political actors ranging from business interests to social justice activists shape climate initiatives as well as the relationship between subnational climate policies and higher levels of government.

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A study of the world involvement of the United States from World War I to the present. Examines themes of rise and decline; isolation and intervention; union and empire; military industrial complex and national security state; domestic influences on foreign policy. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course explores the role of the courts in the experience of racial minorities in the United States. Primarily, but not exclusively, the course examines the courts' impact on African Americans. Where race is concerned, the courts have figured prominently in some of America's proudest and most shameful moments. Slavery, segregation, affirmative action, political representation, and the criminal justice system are some of the topics addressed. The course considers some of the ways in which certain legal, political and policy debates are defined, informed and constrained by the historical arc of racial inequities in American law and politics. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement. Meets the Equity and Power: EPUS requirement. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course studies the theory of law. It examines fundamental and recurring subjects of the field, including principally the relationship between law and morality, along with further links between law and justice, power and authority. Some of the questions addressed include: Must valid laws possess some moral value? Are laws the commands of the powerful, or the rules of self-government, or something else? Does law have any legitimate claim to obedience? What is the justification for legal punishment? Students will read the work of canonical and contemporary legal theorists including Austin, Hart, Aquinas, Finnis, Dworkin, MacKinnon, and others. The course also involves applying these theoretical writings to concrete legal disputes and debates, primarily through analysis of constitutional provisions, judicial decisions and legislation. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course explores the impacts of secrecy and surveillance on the exercise of democracy. How do secrets affect the governed and the state? How does surveillance affect the watcher and the watched? Is informed consent possible in a national security state? Who defines national security? Who benefits from the definition? How are civil rights safeguarded, and how is privacy redefined? How do secrecy and surveillance, in the digital age influence the practice of journalism and fhe exercise of citizenship?

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A seminar organized around comparative analysis of a common theme or topic, employing both historical and political science approaches to analysis and research. Designed principally for History/Political Science majors, but others may be admitted with consent of instructor.

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This course provides an introduction into China's domestic politics and the challenges faced by its political system. How does the Communist Party rule? What are its sources of authority and power? How do China's Maoist legacies influence its present governance strategies? How is Chinese society shaped by China's political system, and how is the political system shaped by social changes and pressures? Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement.

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This course explores most of the major legal traditions of the world. It considers the concepts, functions and methods of comparative legal study. In doing so, it examines broad and specific distinctions between the common law and civil law traditions, with special emphasis on two common law systems (the United States and the United Kingdom) and two civil law systems (France and Germany). It then explores the EU legal system as an amalgam of these two traditions. This course addresses the relationship between legal systems and legal cultures, the challenge of understanding the mechanisms through which different legal traditions attempt to achieve the sometimes competing political, legal and social goals of order and justice, and it evaluates the purposes that constitutions and courts perform in maintaining the rule of law. Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement.

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Students acquire the historical background and analytical tools necessary to understand the European Union. Covers EU history, institutions, and contemporary policies. (Not offered 2021-22).

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This course examines the politics of environmentalism and environmental activism in the United States. It focuses on the development and transformation of environmentalism as a social movement from its roots in the preservationists of the late 19th century, through the emergence of the modern environmental movement in the mid-twentieth century, up to through the challenges environmentalism has faced from across the political spectrum in the past thirty years. It also examines the principal debates that have divided the environmental movement itself, including the debate between conservationism and reservationism, the relationship between wilderness protection and environmental justice, and debates about the efficacy of the movement’s traditional focus on state regulation. Finally, the course investigates the successes and failures of the environmental movement and the challenges and opportunities that mark environmental politics today (Not offered 2021-22).

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An overview of theories of political change and a comparative analysis of the politics of Argentina, Brazil and Chile. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement.

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This course examines theories of revolution through the lens of the Cuban experience. Special focus on the evolution of the Cuban regime and the evaluation of its performance. Additional topics include the analysis of U.S. policy toward the Castro government. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement.

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How do the spaces in which people live and work shape their identities? How do strategies of agency and resistance interact with contexts of domination? Students will obtain training in ethnographic methods and interviewing techniques. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Global Cultures requirement.

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In the words of George Orwell, 'political language is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable.' This course examines different uses of language in political life. Why is speaking political? How does language frame reality? We will study cases of political language, including: political discourse of the Third Reich in Nazi Germany, Communist-era propaganda in the Soviet Union, the tweets of President Trump, and more. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Africa's diverse social and geographic landscape offers rich intellectual opportunities for the student of politics. This course broadly seeks two goals: to teach as much information as possible about Africa's politics and to provide a continent-wide theoretical framework. This course satisfies the comparative politics requirement for the Political Science major

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The U.S.-Latin American Relationship: Explores the evolution of the U.S.- Latin American relationship over the last century. Focuses primarily on overt and covert intervention; the genesis and evolution of the drug war; and, the impacts of human migration. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement.

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If we claim the mantle of “change,” we would be irresponsible to do so without developing a rigorous and critical understanding both of the true character of our aspirations to justice and peace, as well as of the manner by, and the degree to which they can be made effectual. With these twin goals in mind, we will engage with the intrepid thought of the notorious Niccolò Machiavelli. Through an attentive reading of some of Machiavelli’s meticulously written works, we will reflect on his daring venture to lay the philosophical foundations of a thoroughly amoral yet humane modern politics. We will then consider how some of his ancient predecessors whom he attacked would, and how some of his early modern critics did, respond to the challenge his thought poses. 1 unit

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Investigates competing narratives explaining Russia’s patterns of conflict and cooperation with the West. An in-depth empirical study of the historical record enables students to develop an informed, critical analysis of Russian foreign policy. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Surveys contending theories of the contemporary global system, with attention to topics such as globalization, U.S. hegemony, regional conflict, the just war, and the environment. (Not offered 2021-22).

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The vast majority of humans throughout history have lived in undemocratic regimes. What is authoritarianism? How do we define and identify authoritarian regimes? How do they work, and under what circumstances do they collapse? Through case studies, fiction, memoir, and theory, this course explores authoritarian politics at both macro and micro levels.

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An interdisciplinary analysis of environmental policy formulation and regulation at the international level. Examines the negative impact of human activity upon complex ecosystems and the 'global commons,' and analyses the efficacy of international regimes, such as the Kyoto Protocol. Debates the linkages between environmental change, prosperity, and conceptualizations of security. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Social Inequality requirement.

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Analyzes the relationship between domains of public health, global governance and international development. Examines how health, effective governance and poverty alleviation combine to create virtuous spirals that accelerate trajectories of international development. Examines the relationship between health and human rights and effect of health on international security. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Examination of works fundamental to the development of modern political philosophy, including Kant, Hegel, Marx, Mill and Nietzsche. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Reading of major essays in political thought from Nietzsche to the present including such thinkers as Hannah Arendt, Friedrich Hayek, Pierre Manent, Michael Oakeshott, Leo Strauss and Eric Voegelin.

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Examination of classic and modern conceptions of political economy. Emphasis on understanding theory and applying it to explain political and economic outcomes within states and among states in the international arena. Open to declared junior International Political Economy majors, and to others with consent of instructor.

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Explores the effects of fossil fuels, nuclear and various renewable energy technologies on carbon emissions. Investigates the political and technological challenges to climate mitigation and adaptation, examines the projected perils that climate change poses to international security, and analyzes shortcomings in global governance that obstruct coherent solutions to climate change. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Examines (1) the political and social dynamics and interpretive methods that shape the constitutional decisions of the U. S. Supreme Court, and (2) the political impact of the Court's constitutional decisions and doctrines on political and social conditions. Emphasis given to the shift from judicial concern with governmental structures and powers to the contemporary concern with individual and group rights. 1 unit Meets the Critical Learning: AIM requirement.

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This course introduces students to the foundational concepts, questions, and debates in political science research methods. At its core, this course is designed to demonstrate how the choices one makes about research design and methods have significant consequences; the way that we ask research questions (and the choice about which questions to ask), the methodology that we use, and the way that we analyze the data all influence our 'knowledge' about politics and society.

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The writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Friedrich Nietzsche - as penetrating as they are eloquent, as radical in their philosophical explorations as they are revolutionary in their moral and political implications – continue to have a profound influence on our age. Both Rousseau and Nietzsche leveled scathing critiques at emergent modernity and incisively detailed its powerful but corrupting effects on our lives, while painting competing visions of how to ennoble modern values, politics and culture. Yet they seem to do so as polar opposites; indeed, Nietzsche directs his immense rhetorical firepower at Rousseau as a thinker who fostered values - values central to us now - that would only serve to deepen the problems that concern him. Nietzsche’s condemnation of Rousseau, however, is the obverse of his high regard for the latter as the originator of one of the most profound alternatives to modernity. The course will seek to enter into this great contest through an attentive reading of a number of Rousseau’s and Nietzsche’s fundamental texts. (Not offered 2021-22).

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A project normally organized around preparation of a substantial paper. Proposed and carried out at student initiative, under supervision of a department faculty member, in an area in which the student has already completed basic course work. (May also be listed as North American Studies 402 if emphasis is on Canada.)

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A directed research project on a topic of the student's choice. The project might involve an extended research paper, empirical research designed to test a hypothesis or describe some phenomena, a theoretical study of a political thinker or institution of government, or some combination of these. 1 unit.

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May be taught as a block course or as an extended format year-long course.

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May be taught as a block course or as an extended format year-long course.

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May be taught as a block course or as an extended format year-long course.

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A semester long intensive study of advanced texts and topics in political philosophy. The seminar takes one of two forms: Morality of Power. Examines various accounts and defenses of the human interest in the pursuit of power; what constitutes power; and the relations among power, political rule, and justice. Philosophy and Politics in Post-modernity. An introduction to radical changes in philosophic thinking and their potential significance for our understanding of American politics and its principles. This introduction will take place, in part, through a debate with a modern approach to philosophy, politics and morals, including a consideration of its possible connection to Nihilism. (Not offered 2021-22).

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A semester long intensive study of advanced texts and topics in political philosophy. The seminar takes one of two forms: Morality of Power. Examines various accounts and defenses of the human interest in the pursuit of power; what constitutes power; and the relations among power, political rule, and justice. Philosophy and Politics in Post-modernity. An introduction to radical changes in philosophic thinking and their potential significance for our understanding of American politics and its principles. This introduction will take place, in part, through a debate with a modern approach to philosophy, politics and morals, including a consideration of its possible connection to Nihilism. (Not offered 2021-22).

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Thesis on a subject chosen by the student with approval from the department. Independent-study format with regular consultation between student and faculty supervisor.

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Focuses on the historical development and current role of international institutions and multilateral treaties in the regulation of the world economy and environment, with emphasis on the impact of and challenges presented by globalization. Students write a substantial paper exploring some aspect of this interaction, but have considerable freedom in defining their research agenda.

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Optional for majors in American Political Economy and International Political Economy, upon application to, and approval of, the departments of Political Science and Economics and Business. (Must be taken in conjunction with Economics 491 for a total of 2 units.)

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Report an issue - Last updated: 01/21/2021