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Biology

www.coloradocollege.edu/academics/dept/biology/

Professors BERTRAND, EBERSOLE, HATHAWAY, KELSO, SNYDER;
Associate Professors HESCHEL, LINKHART, LOSTROH, WILSON;
Assistant Professors GRAY, HUANG, KILLIAN;

Visiting Professor KOKE (chair), Visiting Associate Professor DRUMMOND;

THE MAJOR — REQUIREMENTS:

ORGANISMS, EVOLUTION, AND ECOLOGY (OEE) TRACK:
A student majoring in biology in the OEE track must earn credit for at least 15 units, including:
 1.) Two courses from Biology 105 Biology of Plants, Biology 107 Biology of Microbes, and Biology 106
Biology of Animals
 2.) Biology 131 Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology
 3.) Biology 208 Ecology
 4.) Either Biology 280 Population Genetics or Biology 231 Genetics
 5.) Five approved elective units:
a.) At least three units must be Biology (BY) courses at the 300 level or higher,
b.) At least one unit must be completed as a Capstone course. Students should consult the Biology Majors Handbook on the departmental website for Capstone requirements and a list of eligible courses.
c.) Any Biology (BY) course except BY100 and BY104 is an approved elective. Biology 101 (FYE) counts as one elective unit.
d.) One unit of the five electives may be CH251 Reactions of Organic Molecules, CH382 Biochemistry I, GY205 Historical Geology, GY300 Invertebrate Paleontology, SC206 Exercise Physiology, or SC301 Biomechanics: Analysis of Human Performance. Other course may also be approved Biology the department Biology petition.
 6.) CH107 General Chemistry I
 7.) CH108 General Chemistry II
 8.) CH250 Structures of Organic Molecules
 9.) One mathematics unit from MA125 Pre-Calculus and Calculus, MA126 Calculus 1, MA127 Accelerated
Calculus Review, or MA129 Calculus 2; AP or IB Calculus credit,
10.) One unit in statistics and experimental design or in modeling from Biology 220 Biostatistics and
Experimental Design, EV228 Analysis of Environmental Data, or Biology 256/MA256 Mathematical Models in Biology. AP or IB Statistics credit. Biology 220 and Biology 256/MA256 may not satisfy both the statistics/modeling requirement and count as an approved elective.
MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY (MCB) TRACK:
A student majoring in biology in the MCB track must earn credit for at least 15 units, including:
1.) Biology 131 Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology,
2.) Either Biology 105 Biology of Plants, Biology 107 Biology of Microbes, or Biology 106 Biology of
Animals,
3.) Biology 231 Genetics,
4.) Six approved elective units,
a.) At least three units must be biology courses with Biology 231 Genetics as a prerequisite. Students can petition the department to count up to two units of BY309, 409 or 499 towards this requirement; provided they complete BY231 prior to these courses and the supervising professor agrees.
b.) At least one unit must be completed as a Capstone course. Students should consult the Biology Majors Handbook on the departmental website for Capstone requirements and a list of eligible courses.
c.) Any biology course except Biology 100 and Biology 104 is an approved elective. Biology 101 (FYE) counts as one elective unit.
d.) One unit of the five electives may be CH382 Biochemistry I or CH241 Introduction to Analytical Chemistry.
e.) One unit of the five electives may be GY300 Invertebrate Paleontology, PY297 Neuroscience I, or SC301 Biomechanics: Analysis of Human Performance. Other courses may also be approved by the department by petition.
5.) CH107 General Chemistry I
6.) CH108 General Chemistry II
7.) CH250 Structures of Organic Molecules
8.) CH251 Reactions of Organic Molecules
9.) Two mathematics units from MA117 Probability and Statistics or MA217 Probability and Statistical
Modeling, MA125 Pre-Calculus and Calculus, MA126 Calculus 1, MA127 Accelerated Calculus Review, or MA129 Calculus 2; Biology 220 Biostatistics and Experimental Design, Biology 256/MA256 Mathematical Models in Biology; AP or IB Calculus credit; AP or IB Statistics credit. Biology 220 and Biology 256/MA256 may not satisfy both the mathematics requirement and count as an approved elective.

Students may declare the biology major at any time, but are strongly urged to speak with a biology faculty member about the major before declaring. All biology majors must have an advisor in the biology department. During the senior year a student majoring in biology must pass a comprehensive examination and present five written abstracts of departmental seminars. See the Biology Majors Handbook for further information.

All potential or declared biology majors should read the Biology Majors Handbook on the departmental website or pick up a copy of the Biology Majors Handbook from the biology department office. Because of the large number of courses required for the major, students are urged to schedule their classes carefully and in consultation with a biology faculty member. Students in pre-health programs and those interested in graduate programs should note that a second unit of calculus, a second unit of organic chemistry, and two units of physics may be required for admission to a program.

A senior biology major may wish to attempt to graduate with “Distinction in Biology,” in part by writing a senior thesis and presenting the thesis orally. Details of the distinction option and department requirements can be found in the Biology Majors Handbook. Students seeking off-campus credit toward the major should consult the Biology Majors Handbook for guidelines.

Biology Courses

BY100 Studies in Biology:

Presents students not majoring in biology with inquiries into contemporary issues and phenomena in the biological sciences. Activities include lectures, readings, discussions, and laboratory or field experiences. May not be counted toward a biology major. (May meet the laboratory/field requirement for critical perspectives.)

Also listed as Film and New Media Studies 200.

1 unit —

BY101 Introduction to Molecular Microbiology

This course introduces the theory and practice of microbiology, with an emphasis on laboratory investigations of bacterial life. The origins of life on earth, the isolation, cultivation and identification of bacteria, bacterial genetics, and infectious disease including HIV/AIDS will be examined through discussion, laboratory work, and lecture. Can count as 1 unit of lower-level elective credit toward a Biology major. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement.

Prerequisite: 2 yrs HS Biology & 1 yr HS Chemistry or consent of instructor.

2 units —

BY105 Biology of Plants

The study of plants with an emphasis on the flowering plants. Relationships between form and function, growth and development and evolutionary and ecological relationships are examined with attention given to the chemical bases of plant life, the fundamentals of metabolic pathways, and the integrative nature of plant structures from cellular to ecological levels. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement.

Prerequisite: Strong high school Chemistry highly recommended.

1 unit —

BY106 Biology of Animals

An introduction to the biology of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Evolution and functional architecture of animal body plans, patterns of structure and function, survival strategies, principles of animal ecology and evolution, and phylogeny of animal groups examined through lab, discussion, and investigative activities. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement.

Prerequisite: (Strong high school chemistry highly recommended) No credit after Biology 108 or 109.

1 unit —

BY107 Biology of Microbes

An introduction to the world of Bacteria, Archaea, microscopic Eukarya and viruses. Emphasizing the role of microbes as causal agents of major human disease (TB, AIDS, malaria); as essential components of the human microbiome; as critical elements in biogeochemical processes; and as tools in agriculture, industry and food production. Lecture, discussion, student presentations and laboratory projects. No credit towards the Biology major if taken after Biology 101 or 231. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement.

Prerequisite: Strong high school Chemistry highly recommended.

1 unit —

BY131 Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology

Structures and functions of biomacromolecules, organelles, and cells and the flow of energy and information within and among them. Laboratory and lecture course designed to provide an introduction to molecular and cellular biology, with emphasis on how to address questions experimentally. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Quantitative Reasoning requirement.

Prerequisite: Chemistry 107 or consent of instructor. No credit after Biology 210.

1 unit —

BY202 Field Botany

A field course involving collection, identification, and preservation of vascular plants, emphasizing evolution, ecology and biogeography. Takes advantage of the major ecosystems of the Pikes Peak region. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement.

Prerequisite: Biology 105.

Also listed as Southwest Studies 202.

1 unit —

BY205 Human Evolution

Fossil and genetic evidence for human evolution as well as the implications of evolution for understanding the adaptations of modern humans. Nature and timing of the developments that led from our distant, rodent-like ancestors to humans as we are today. Evolutionary theories that have been proposed to explain these changes. Adaptive significance of changes in the relationship between members of our lineage is also stressed. Through lectures, laboratories, discussions, and student presentations, students learn some of the basic principles of molecular genetics and discuss the use of genetics in evolutionary research. No credit toward Biology major if taken after Biology 231. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World requirement.

Prerequisite: Biology 105 or 106 or 107 or 108 or 109 or Anthropology 101.

Also listed as Anthropology 201.

1 unit —

BY207 Human Anatomy

A cadaver dissection course designed to help students gain an understanding of the fundamental concepts of the structure of the human body. Designed to meet the needs of students interested in pre- and allied health fields when taken in conjunction with BY/SC 321. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 131 or 210, Biology 106 or 109, and Chemistry 108.

1 unit

BY208 Ecology

The analysis of distributions, abundances, and interrelationships of organisms. Populations, communities, and ecosystems are investigated, and implications for humans considered. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement.

Prerequisite: Chemistry 107 and 1 unit from Biology 105, 107, 108, 109 Geology 130 or 140.

Also listed as Southwest Studies 208.

1 unit —

BY220 Biostatistics and Experimental Design

Emphasis on application rather than theory or derivation. Topics: measures of central tendency and variability, correlation, regression, t-tests, Chi-square, analysis of variance, selected non-parametric methods, statistical inference and experimental design. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World requirement. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Quantitative Reasoning requirement.

Prerequisite: At least 1 college biology course or consent of instructor. No Credit after Economics 200 or Mathematics 117.

1 unit —

BY231 Genetics

Nature, transmission and expression of hereditary information; lecture and laboratory will include principles of molecular and transmission genetics with an emphasis on concepts and laboratory techniques used in contemporary molecular genetic research.

Prerequisite: 1)Biology 131 or 210;and 2) Chemistry 108 or consent of instructor. No credit after Biology 361.

1 unit —

BY240 Special Topics in Biology:

Special topics in Biology not offered on a regular basis. (Not offered 2013-14).

1 unit

BY244 Histotechnique

Students will acquire the basic knowledge necessary to prepare animal and plant tissues for examination by light microscopy. Theoretical aspects of fixation, paraffin embedding, sectioning techniques, and the art of staining will be emphasized. Interpretation of results will be facilitated through lecture/discussion sessions highlighting the basics of histology. Limit 16 students. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 105 or 109 recommended.

.5 to 1 unit

BY249 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2013-14).

1 unit

BY256 Mathematical Models in Biology

An introduction to selected quantitative models drawn from ecology, genetics, and physiology. For each model the course includes an investigation of the mathematical methods used, an evaluation of the model, and some elementary simulation techniques. (Offered alternate years). Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World requirement. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Mathematics 126 and 1 college biology course.

1 unit

BY280 Population Genetics

Classical genetics as it applies to understanding the evolution of populations. This course examines the following topics: genetic issues of small and isolated populations, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, factors affecting allele frequencies, variance and F-statistics, molecular methods, and quantitative genetics. This course also includes discussions of contemporary issues in applied population genetics and laboratory investigations.

Prerequisite: Biology 131 or 210, Biology 208, and Chemistry 108; or consent of instructor.

1 unit —

BY304 Immunology

A survey of the main elements of the human body's defenses against invading microorganisms. Emphasis is on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of B and T lymphocyte functioning, along with consideration of autoimmune and immune deficiency diseases. Lecture, discussion and laboratory. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 210 (Biology 301 recommended).

1 unit

BY308 Advanced Ecology

Field studies and theoretical topics selected to illustrate the research process and ecological thought. Will include use of ecological literature.

Prerequisite: consent of instructor or Biology 208.

1 unit —

BY309 Research Problems in Biology:

Independent research projects based on laboratory or field investigation. Experimental studies completed away from campus must receive prior departmental approval. (Class, laboratory or field activities arranged.) (Only 2 units from 309, 403, 409 or 499 may count toward the Biology major.)

Prerequisite: consent of instructor & 2 from 105, 107, 108 or 109 & 210 (total 3) & arranged 1 block ahead.

1 unit —

BY321 Human Physiology

The course provides an integrative approach to understanding basic anatomical and physiological relationships of major organ systems in the human body through human cadaver dissection. Designed to meet the needs of students interested in pre and allied health fields when taken in conjunction with BY/SC 207.

Prerequisite: BY/SC 207.

Also listed as Sport Science 321.

1 unit —

BY330 Parasitic Protozoa

The biology of parasitic protozoa in humans and other animals. Lecture, laboratory and readings will focus on host-parasite relations, life histories, morphology, and physiology of parasitic protozoa. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 108 or 109 or consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY331 Parasitic Helminths

The biology of worms parasitic in humans and other animals. Lecture, laboratory and readings will focus on host-parasite relations, life histories, morphology, and physiology of parasitic helminths. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 108 or 109 or consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY332 Animal Behavior

A comparative study of the diversities of behavioral systems of animals. Lecture, laboratory and field work include ethological theories and methods, emphasizing observation, denotation and analysis of behavior. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 208 and either 106 or 109; or consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY341 Special Topics in Biology:

Special topics in Biology not offered on a regular basis. (Not offered 2013-14).

.5 to 1 unit

BY342 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2013-14).

1 unit

BY343 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2013-14).

1 unit

BY344 Scanning Electron Microscopy

Basic principles of electron optical systems, image formation, specimen preparation, and photography. Individual instruction in the care, use and operation of the instrument as a research tool is emphasized. in the natural sciences.

Prerequisite: Sophomore standing & prior course work in natural science.

1 unit —

BY345 Transmission Electron Microscopy

Basic principles of electron optical systems, image formation, specimen preparation, ultramicrotomy, and photography. Individual instruction in the care, use, and operation of the instrument as a research tool is emphasized.

Prerequisite: Biology 210 & Sophomore standing.

1 unit —

BY348 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2013-14).

1 unit

BY349 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2013-14).

1 unit

BY350 Advanced Genetic Analysis

Lecture and discussion of primary literature and advanced topics in genetics. This course is tailored for students interested in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current genetic research in an interactive setting. Lecture and literature topics may include mitotic recombination, meiotic drive, recombinant inbreds, SNP mapping, trans-sensing, and techniques in the molecular-genetic manipulation of cells, and organisms. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 231, 280, or 361 and Chemistry 250.

1 unit

BY359 Bacterial Genetics and Physiology

Molecular biology and genetics of microbes with emphasis on bacteria. Ultrastructure, heredity, physiology, and evolution of bacteria from a molecular perspective. Laboratory emphasizes experimental design and analysis in microbiology.

Prerequisite: Biology 231 or 361.

1 unit —

BY362 Plant Ecology

Descriptive and analytical studies of plant communities and populations. Field work includes sampling techniques and their application to answer specific research questions. Readings and discussions cover the various perspectives and theories of plant ecology. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 208 (Biology 202 recommended).

1 unit

BY363 Virology

The molecular biology and biochemistry of viruses, including attachment to, penetration of, and replication in host cells. Through discussion, laboratory, and lecture, the course emphasizes the experimental basis of current understanding of virus function. Laboratory emphasizes propagation and analysis of bacteriophages.

Prerequisite: Biology 231 or 361.

1 unit —

BY365 Plant Physiology

Whole plant physiology with an emphasis on growth and development through examination of structure and function of cells and organs, metabolism, stress biology, and phytohormones. Includes discussions of primary literature in the discipline, a laboratory investigation and an emphasis on writing a scientific paper.

Prerequisite: 1)Biology 105;2)Biology 131 or 210; and 3)Chemistry 250 or consent of instructor. No credit after Biology 364 or 474.

1 unit —

BY366 Comparative Animal Physiology

A whole-animal perspective on survival and maintenance of homeostasis in variable and often stressful environments. We will focus on aspects of water balance, feeding, digestion, metabolism, respiration and circulation. Course includes field and laboratory investigations.

Prerequisite: Biology 208 and 131, and one from Biology 106, 108 or 109; or consent of instructor.

1 unit —

BY367 Animal Ecology (X/list with SW 303)

A field course involving collection, identification, and population and life-history studies of animals of regional ecosystems. Principles of animal ecology, behavior, and biogeography, are emphasized through field case studies and discussion of primary literature. Field work includes sampling techniques and their application to answer specific research questions.

Prerequisite: Biology 208 and either Biology 106, 108, or 109; or consent of instructor. No credit after Biology 203.

Also listed as Southwest Studies 303.

1 unit —

BY369 Tropical Ecology

Introduction to the ecology of tropical wet forests and coral reefs, with emphasis on the high biological diversity common to these ecosystems. The course is linked to BY 370 Tropical Forest and Coral Reef Ecology, and students must enroll in both courses. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Jr or Sr standing, Biology 208 & enrollment in Biology 370.

.5 unit

BY370 Tropical Forest and Coral Reef Ecology

Ecology of tropical wet forests and coral reefs taught at forest and reef sites in the tropics. Field studies, theoretical topics, and primary ecological literature will be used to explore interactions in these systems, with emphasis on selected organisms and system characteristics. The course is linked to cross-cultural experience with local people. The course is linked to BY 369 Tropical Ecology, and students must enroll in both courses. EXTRA EXPENSE. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing, BY 208, BY 369, and good swimming ability. 1 unit--Capen and Snyder. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Jr or Sr standing, Biology 208, 369 & good swimming ability. EXTRA EXPENSE.

1 unit

BY375 Environmental Microbiology

Study of the ecology of microbes in environments as diverse as deep-ocean volcanic vents; termite hind guts; the lithosphere; the human guts; plant roots; ice of the Arctic and Antarctic; and terrestrial models of extra-terrestrial environments. Emphasis on discussion of primary literature in environmental microbiology and microbial ecology. Significant laboratory component and minor field component. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 107, or 101, Biology 131 or 210, Biology 231 or 361, and Chemistry 108; or consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY378 Laboratory Investigation in Molecular Microbiology

A laboratory-intensive course with supplementary discussions and lectures. Topics include experimental design and analysis, genetic manipulation of bacterial plasmids and chromosomes, bioinformatic analysis of bacterial genomes, and physiological analysis of bacterial mutants. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 359 or 363.

1 unit

BY380 Advanced Cell Biology

Study of select processes that occur in eukaryotic cells such as cytoskeletal dynamics, membrane transport, protein targeting, cell-cell communication, and regulation of cell division and death. Heavy emphasis on how questions in cell biology are addresses experimentally. Course includes lectures, discussion of primary literature, and laboratories.

Prerequisite: Chemistry 250 and either Biology 231 or 361.

1 unit —

BY389 Patagonian Ecology and Biogeography

Introduction to the ecology and biogeography of Patagonia, including montane, steppe and coastal ecosystems. The course is linked to Biology 390 Ecology and Biogeography of Patagonia, and students must enroll in both courses.

Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing. Biology 208 and enrollment in Biology 390.

.5 unit —

BY390 Ecology and Biogeography of Patagonia

On-site investigations of the ecology and biogeography of Andean mountain forests and Patagonian steppe and studies of the ecology of several marine vertebrate species at the Atlantic coast. Students will read and present original literature, meet with local scientists at their study sites, and develop hypotheses that could be tested in the ecosystems we visit.

Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing, Biology 208, Biology 389 (half-block), and consent of instructor. (taught in Patagonia) Extra Expense.

1 unit —

BY403 Research Problems in Biochemistry

An independent research project intended for biochemistry majors and based on laboratory investigation in biochemistry. The student should choose the original research topic with advice from member(s) of the department prior to registration in the class. (Only 2 units from 309, 403, 409 and 499 may count toward the Biology major.)

Prerequisite: Chemistry 245, 382 & consent of instructor.

1 unit —

BY409 Research Problems in Biology:

Independent research projects based on laboratory or field investigation., consent of instructor, and registration at least one block prior to the block in which the research is to be initiated. Experimental studies completed away from campus must receive prior departmental approval. (Class, laboratory or field activities arranged.) (Only 2 units from 309, 403, 409 or 499 may count toward the Biology major.)

Prerequisite: consent of instructor & 2 from 105, 107, 108 or 109 & 210 (total 3) & arranged 1 block ahead.

1 unit —

BY410 Ornithology

Identification, taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior and ecology of birds, including field and laboratory work. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: consent of instructor or Biology 203.

1 unit

BY412 Entomology

Evolution, taxonomy, structure, physiology, development, behavior and ecology of insects. Laboratory includes identification, dissection, experimentation, curation and field work. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: consent of instructor or Biology 108, 208.

1 unit

BY415 Seminar in Evolutionary Biology

A capstone course primarily for upper level biology students. We will examine and critique classical concepts of evolutionary theory and their modern extensions through reading scientific literature and by drawing upon students' previous knowledge and experience in diverse fields of biology.

Prerequisite: 2 units from Biology 105, 106, 107, 108 or 109 and 1 unit from Biology 231, 280, or 361.

1 unit —

BY421 Conservation Biology

Conservation issues of plant and animal species, habitats, and ecological systems will be examined through reading, discussion, and project-based exploration of local, national, and global examples. Core components of conservation biology theory such as habitat fragmentation, problems of small populations, rarity, genetic erosion, reserve design, and invasive species will be emphasized in the context of the local environment. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 105, 131, 208, and one from Biology 106, 108, 109.

1 unit

BY422 Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Ecology

This course explores links between the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere across many different scales, from the microorganism to the globe. The primary focus will be on the cycling of biologically important elements in natural and managed ecosystems with an emphasis on how these cycles will change under increased human influence. Students will gain hands-on research experience using analytical techniques in the field and the laboratory, and they will share their results in a formal scientific paper and presentation. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: (BY/EV 208) & (Environmental Science 155 or Geology 130 or 140) & (Mathematics 117 or Biology 220 or Economics 200) or consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY440 Special Topics in Biology:

Special Topics in Biology. Special topics in biology not offered on a regular basis.

Prerequisite: consent of instructor & Junior or Senior standing.

1 unit —

BY442 Special Topics in Biology:

Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

1 unit —

BY443 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 208.

1 unit

BY446 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY447 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY450 Seminar in Biomedical Research

A capstone course intended for upper level students in the Molecular and Cellular Biology track. Focuses on understanding the genetics, molecular principles, and emerging technologies in biomedical research. Students will present a paper from the literature and critique scientific proposals that address topics in biomedical research. Students will propose next steps in the proposed research, write critiques and a collaborative biomedical research proposal given expected results. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 231, 280 or 361 and Chemistry 250.

1 unit

BY453 Stem Cell Biology

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are capable of self-renewal and have the potential to develop into specialized cells types. Stem cells are important for development, reproduction, growth, healing, and homeostasis. This course covers the microenvironments that are required to maintain stem cells, asymmetric cell division, the genes required for stem cell fate, the use of stem cells for medical applications, and ethical considerations. This course includes lectures, discussion of primary research articles, student presentations, and labs. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 231.

1 unit

BY463 Seminar in Bacterial Pathogenesis

Biology of infectious bacterial disease with emphasis on molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. Through reading, discussing and critiquing primary literature, and developing a research proposal, the course integrates students' knowledge of molecular biology and biochemistry. (Not offered 2013-14).

Prerequisite: Biology 231 or 361, Biology 359, and Chemistry 382.

1 unit

BY466 Developmental Biology

Study of the development of the fertilized egg into a multicellular organism with multiple cell types, tissues, and organs working together. Emphasis on the genetic regulation of developmental processes, cell-cell communication, and the methods by which these processes are elucidated. Course includes lectures, discussion of primary literature, and laboratories.

Prerequisite: Biology 231 and 380, or Biology 361; or consent of instructor.

1 unit —

BY475 Techniques in Molecular Ecology and Systematics

A course on the techniques employed in molecular ecology and molecular systematics, such as DNA fingerprinting, DNA sequencing, phylogenetics and 'DNA barcoding.' The class will discuss primary literature in the areas of ecology, systematics, conservation biology and biodiversity, with an emphasis on the appropriate application of molecular techniques in these disciplines and on the interpretation of molecular data. Laboratory projects will involve DNA sequencing and phylogenetics.

Prerequisite: Biology 208 and either Biology 231, 280 or 361 or consent of instructor.

1 unit —

BY499 Senior Thesis

Writing of the senior thesis based on data from an undergraduate research project. The thesis topic is to be chosen by the student following consultation with a member of the Biology Department faculty who agrees to serve as the project and thesis advisor. (Only 2 units from 309, 403, 409 may count toward the Biology major; only 1 unit of 499 may count toward the major.)

1 unit —